In 1206, Genghis Khan, at 44, united the Mongols. Genghis Khan created a meritocracy of Inclusive Institutions with respect for women and religious diversity. A human hurricane resulted. In the eye there were Inclucive Institutions. The storm devestated all opposition to create the world’s largest empire and safe trade zone. Recommended reading:
- Genghis Khan, and the making of the Modern World.
- Wait For It…The Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17 (querky)
- Eight minute video summary
- The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan
- Genghis Khan and the Quest for God, How the World’s Greatest Conqueror Gave Us Religion Freedom
The American Revolution was the next great wave of Inclusive Institutions. Empowering everyone conflicts with tyranny.
Today humanity is facing multiple Civilization Killers of Climate Change, Oil Famine, perpetual oil-wars, oil-dollar funded terrorism, debt, resource depletion, population overshoot, etc….
It seems to me that Inclusive Institutions is the only tool capable of mitigating the harms that are unfolding from the privileged consuming more than they produce.
Universal military service of 3 to 5 month will not create good infantryman, but it will make bad sheep. If there are no sheep, there will be fewer wolves. Again this decreases the risk of being a victim of war/insurrection and the puppets of tyrants.
Cleisthenes (/ˈklaɪsθɪˌniːz/; Greek: Κλεισθένης, Kleisthénēs; also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC.
In order to forestall strife between the traditional clans, which had led to the tyranny in the first place, he changed the political organization from the four traditional tribes, which were based on family relations and which formed the basis of the upper class Athenian political power network, into ten tribes according to their area of residence (their deme,) which would form the basis of a new democratic power structure. It is thought that there may have been 139 demes (though this is still a matter of debate) which were organized into three groups called trittyes (“thirds”), with ten demes divided among three regions in each trittyes (a city region, asty; a coastal region, paralia; and an inland region, mesogeia). Cleisthenes also abolished patronymics in favour of demonymics (a name given according to the deme to which one belongs), thus increasing Athenians’ sense of belonging to a deme. He also established sortition – the random selection of citizens to fill government positions rather than kinship or heredity, a true test of real democracy. He reorganized the Boule, created with 400 members under Solon, so that it had 500 members, 50 from each tribe. He also introduced the bouletic oath, “To advise according to the laws what was best for the people”. The court system (Dikasteria — law courts) was reorganized and had from 201–5001 jurors selected each day, up to 500 from each tribe. It was the role of the Boule to propose laws to the assembly of voters, who convened in Athens around forty times a year for this purpose. The bills proposed could be rejected, passed or returned for amendments by the assembly.
Cleisthenes also may have introduced ostracism (first used in 487 BC), whereby a vote from more than 6,000 of the citizens would exile a citizen for 10 years. The initial trend was to vote for a citizen deemed a threat to the democracy (e.g., by having ambitions to set himself up as tyrant). However, soon after, any citizen judged to have too much power in the city tended to be targeted for exile (e.g., Xanthippus in 485/84 BC).Under this system, the exiled man’s property was maintained, but he was not physically in the city where he could possibly create a new tyranny. One later ancient author records that Cleisthenes himself was the first person to be ostracized.